/page/2
sciencesoup:

Translation
In the process of transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase painstakingly copies a strand of DNA, and sends the freshly copied messenger out into the world, ready to tell ribosomes how to synthesise proteins.
Before we get onto how this is done, let’s take a look at what ribosomes are. The ribosome is a protein-making machine that’s actually made of RNA. It has two parts or subunits that bind on either side of the incoming mRNA: the small subunit reads the RNA, and the large subunit joins amino acids together to form a polypeptide chain.
But there’s a catch. Ribosomes don’t speak the same language as DNA does. If they were given the raw blueprints, it’d be like you opening up a box from IKEA and finding an instruction booklet written entirely in Swedish, without any pictures to stop you from attaching table legs upside down. Of course, if you were in that situation, you’d go to Google Translate to help get the information across—and ribosomes actually do the same thing. Well, almost.
The cell has to somehow interpret the genetic message from the sequences of nucleotides from the mRNA, and translate them into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Our interpreter—the cell’s equivalent of Google Translate—is another handy RNA molecule called Transfer RNA (tRNA), which floats around in the cytoplasm. In basic terms, its function is to read the message on the mRNA molecule, then goes and fetches the right amino acids and gives them to the ribosome to attach into a polypeptide chain. It does this with the help of an enzyme called amino acetyl tRNA synthase, which helps match up the amino acid to the tRNA. There are twenty different types of synthase, one for each amino acid.
Basically, it turns the language of nucleic acids into the language of proteins.
But how does the tRNA know how to read the mRNA molecule?
Well, the sequence of bases on an mRNA molecule are arranged in a specific way—in a series of non-overlapping codons. A codon is a group of three nitrogenous bases that code for a specific amino acid. The code CUU (cytosine-uracil-uracil), for example, codes for the amino acid leucine.

There are different kinds of tRNA that bind to a specific amino acid. Each one has a specific three-nucleotide sequence called an anti-codon that matches up with the complementary mRNA codon.
Some codons don’t code for an amino acid but rather act as a stop or go signal. See, if you’ve got a bunch of bases that have to be read in particular groups, you want to make sure that your tRNA starts at the right spot. Otherwise, the reading frame gets shifted one or two bases over, and suddenly your tRNA is fetching the wrong amino acids and your protein is a complete disaster. There are three different “stop” codons (UAA, UAG, and UGA) and one “start” codon (AUG). These tell the tRNA where to start reading and where to stop reading.
However, as you may have noticed from the table above, there isn’t just one codon for each amino acid. There are 61 different ways you can arrange four nucleotides into groups of three, so there are 61 codons. This means that some codons code for more than one amino acid. As you may also have noticed, the codons that code for the same amino acid all have the same first two nucleotides—it’s only the third nucleotide that changes.
This is a really important point. It means that the third nucleotide in a codon isn’t really that important. Most of the time, you could change that nucleotide and the same amino acid will still be produced. If any of the other nucleotides were changed, this could fundamentally alter what the codon codes for—another, incorrect amino acid would then be added to the polypeptide chain, and it could have a huge effect on the function of the chain. This is a mutation. But if the mutation occurs in the third nucleotide, chances are, everything will be fine.
On that note, another important thing—there isn’t one tRNA molecule for each codon. There are only 45 different tRNAs, and some can bind to more than one codon. Again, this is because the third nucleotide is the most flexible, and less important.
Next: a look at the steps of protein synthesis.
Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons
Further resources: Translation

Reblogging because it’s a good explanation.

sciencesoup:

Translation

In the process of transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase painstakingly copies a strand of DNA, and sends the freshly copied messenger out into the world, ready to tell ribosomes how to synthesise proteins.

Before we get onto how this is done, let’s take a look at what ribosomes are. The ribosome is a protein-making machine that’s actually made of RNA. It has two parts or subunits that bind on either side of the incoming mRNA: the small subunit reads the RNA, and the large subunit joins amino acids together to form a polypeptide chain.

But there’s a catch. Ribosomes don’t speak the same language as DNA does. If they were given the raw blueprints, it’d be like you opening up a box from IKEA and finding an instruction booklet written entirely in Swedish, without any pictures to stop you from attaching table legs upside down. Of course, if you were in that situation, you’d go to Google Translate to help get the information across—and ribosomes actually do the same thing. Well, almost.

The cell has to somehow interpret the genetic message from the sequences of nucleotides from the mRNA, and translate them into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Our interpreter—the cell’s equivalent of Google Translate—is another handy RNA molecule called Transfer RNA (tRNA), which floats around in the cytoplasm. In basic terms, its function is to read the message on the mRNA molecule, then goes and fetches the right amino acids and gives them to the ribosome to attach into a polypeptide chain. It does this with the help of an enzyme called amino acetyl tRNA synthase, which helps match up the amino acid to the tRNA. There are twenty different types of synthase, one for each amino acid.

Basically, it turns the language of nucleic acids into the language of proteins.

But how does the tRNA know how to read the mRNA molecule?

Well, the sequence of bases on an mRNA molecule are arranged in a specific way—in a series of non-overlapping codons. A codon is a group of three nitrogenous bases that code for a specific amino acid. The code CUU (cytosine-uracil-uracil), for example, codes for the amino acid leucine.

image

There are different kinds of tRNA that bind to a specific amino acid. Each one has a specific three-nucleotide sequence called an anti-codon that matches up with the complementary mRNA codon.

Some codons don’t code for an amino acid but rather act as a stop or go signal. See, if you’ve got a bunch of bases that have to be read in particular groups, you want to make sure that your tRNA starts at the right spot. Otherwise, the reading frame gets shifted one or two bases over, and suddenly your tRNA is fetching the wrong amino acids and your protein is a complete disaster. There are three different “stop” codons (UAA, UAG, and UGA) and one “start” codon (AUG). These tell the tRNA where to start reading and where to stop reading.

However, as you may have noticed from the table above, there isn’t just one codon for each amino acid. There are 61 different ways you can arrange four nucleotides into groups of three, so there are 61 codons. This means that some codons code for more than one amino acid. As you may also have noticed, the codons that code for the same amino acid all have the same first two nucleotides—it’s only the third nucleotide that changes.

This is a really important point. It means that the third nucleotide in a codon isn’t really that important. Most of the time, you could change that nucleotide and the same amino acid will still be produced. If any of the other nucleotides were changed, this could fundamentally alter what the codon codes for—another, incorrect amino acid would then be added to the polypeptide chain, and it could have a huge effect on the function of the chain. This is a mutation. But if the mutation occurs in the third nucleotide, chances are, everything will be fine.

On that note, another important thing—there isn’t one tRNA molecule for each codon. There are only 45 different tRNAs, and some can bind to more than one codon. Again, this is because the third nucleotide is the most flexible, and less important.

Next: a look at the steps of protein synthesis.

Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons

Further resources: Translation

Reblogging because it’s a good explanation.

My OCD senses are in a dilemma.
Halp!

My OCD senses are in a dilemma.

Halp!

fallenforbands:

imperfect-ions:

kaijuuwrx:

That water is so fucking clear…

type of place I wanna live

I’d be the idiot who forgets the water is there and falls off there porch everyday

fallenforbands:

imperfect-ions:

kaijuuwrx:

That water is so fucking clear…

type of place I wanna live

I’d be the idiot who forgets the water is there and falls off there porch everyday

(via mybygonevexations)

Sup guiz.

how  are you all doin?

szarabasjka:

sameatschildren:

co8alt-thief:

hannibalspenis:

arkhamboundz:

fandomsandconservativelogic:

therealkillthetraitor:

lejacquelope:

.

Why would ANYONE think this kind of mentality is okay? It’s like a serious phobia of men!

This is not okay. This is not equality.

Didn’t we learn in elementary school that putting other people down to make yourself feel good is bullying?

This isn’t feminism. This is evil.

this is disturbing.

And these women call themselves “feminists”…

And this is why people think feminism is awful. This is not feminism, this is awful people doing awful things.

most of this come from women victimized by men at some point I don’t blame them, but I do not share or support their ideas.

think about what kind of things had to happen to this ladies to think like that, an how fucked up is the world that judges the victims

Sure, it’s not like they are terrible people in general at all. It’s ok for them to behave like this because they are victims, eh?

(via szarabasjkali)

  • Richie: You look like Bruce Lee
  • Scott: Why, because I'm Asian?
  • Richie: No because you look like Bruce Lee. I just paid you a compliment.
EVERY. DAMN. MORNING.

<3

EVERY. DAMN. MORNING.

<3

manic-satanic:

dommer:

Dear cis people,
Check your motherfucking privilege. 

This is disgusting AND rape. EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO REFUSE SEX. Man, woman, male, female, gay, straight, trans, cis. Are you fucking kidding me???
Sexual orientation usually is based on SEX, not GENDER. I don’t care if a transwoman is a woman, as a lesbian I DO NOT WANT A DICK IN ME. And I have EVERY RIGHT to refuse sex with someone even if it’s just because they have a dick.
Forcing a man to be attracted to you and have sex with you because you identify as a woman is rape and wrong.

^dis girl. 
listen to her.

manic-satanic:

dommer:

Dear cis people,

Check your motherfucking privilege.

This is disgusting AND rape. EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO REFUSE SEX. Man, woman, male, female, gay, straight, trans, cis. Are you fucking kidding me???

Sexual orientation usually is based on SEX, not GENDER. I don’t care if a transwoman is a woman, as a lesbian I DO NOT WANT A DICK IN ME. And I have EVERY RIGHT to refuse sex with someone even if it’s just because they have a dick.

Forcing a man to be attracted to you and have sex with you because you identify as a woman is rape and wrong.

^dis girl. 

listen to her.

(via )

There once was a maiden from Stonebury Hollow…

she didn’t talk much, but boy did she swallow…

I have a nice lance that she sat upon…

the maiden from Stonebury who is also your mum…

sciencesoup:

Translation
In the process of transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase painstakingly copies a strand of DNA, and sends the freshly copied messenger out into the world, ready to tell ribosomes how to synthesise proteins.
Before we get onto how this is done, let’s take a look at what ribosomes are. The ribosome is a protein-making machine that’s actually made of RNA. It has two parts or subunits that bind on either side of the incoming mRNA: the small subunit reads the RNA, and the large subunit joins amino acids together to form a polypeptide chain.
But there’s a catch. Ribosomes don’t speak the same language as DNA does. If they were given the raw blueprints, it’d be like you opening up a box from IKEA and finding an instruction booklet written entirely in Swedish, without any pictures to stop you from attaching table legs upside down. Of course, if you were in that situation, you’d go to Google Translate to help get the information across—and ribosomes actually do the same thing. Well, almost.
The cell has to somehow interpret the genetic message from the sequences of nucleotides from the mRNA, and translate them into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Our interpreter—the cell’s equivalent of Google Translate—is another handy RNA molecule called Transfer RNA (tRNA), which floats around in the cytoplasm. In basic terms, its function is to read the message on the mRNA molecule, then goes and fetches the right amino acids and gives them to the ribosome to attach into a polypeptide chain. It does this with the help of an enzyme called amino acetyl tRNA synthase, which helps match up the amino acid to the tRNA. There are twenty different types of synthase, one for each amino acid.
Basically, it turns the language of nucleic acids into the language of proteins.
But how does the tRNA know how to read the mRNA molecule?
Well, the sequence of bases on an mRNA molecule are arranged in a specific way—in a series of non-overlapping codons. A codon is a group of three nitrogenous bases that code for a specific amino acid. The code CUU (cytosine-uracil-uracil), for example, codes for the amino acid leucine.

There are different kinds of tRNA that bind to a specific amino acid. Each one has a specific three-nucleotide sequence called an anti-codon that matches up with the complementary mRNA codon.
Some codons don’t code for an amino acid but rather act as a stop or go signal. See, if you’ve got a bunch of bases that have to be read in particular groups, you want to make sure that your tRNA starts at the right spot. Otherwise, the reading frame gets shifted one or two bases over, and suddenly your tRNA is fetching the wrong amino acids and your protein is a complete disaster. There are three different “stop” codons (UAA, UAG, and UGA) and one “start” codon (AUG). These tell the tRNA where to start reading and where to stop reading.
However, as you may have noticed from the table above, there isn’t just one codon for each amino acid. There are 61 different ways you can arrange four nucleotides into groups of three, so there are 61 codons. This means that some codons code for more than one amino acid. As you may also have noticed, the codons that code for the same amino acid all have the same first two nucleotides—it’s only the third nucleotide that changes.
This is a really important point. It means that the third nucleotide in a codon isn’t really that important. Most of the time, you could change that nucleotide and the same amino acid will still be produced. If any of the other nucleotides were changed, this could fundamentally alter what the codon codes for—another, incorrect amino acid would then be added to the polypeptide chain, and it could have a huge effect on the function of the chain. This is a mutation. But if the mutation occurs in the third nucleotide, chances are, everything will be fine.
On that note, another important thing—there isn’t one tRNA molecule for each codon. There are only 45 different tRNAs, and some can bind to more than one codon. Again, this is because the third nucleotide is the most flexible, and less important.
Next: a look at the steps of protein synthesis.
Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons
Further resources: Translation

Reblogging because it&#8217;s a good explanation.

sciencesoup:

Translation

In the process of transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase painstakingly copies a strand of DNA, and sends the freshly copied messenger out into the world, ready to tell ribosomes how to synthesise proteins.

Before we get onto how this is done, let’s take a look at what ribosomes are. The ribosome is a protein-making machine that’s actually made of RNA. It has two parts or subunits that bind on either side of the incoming mRNA: the small subunit reads the RNA, and the large subunit joins amino acids together to form a polypeptide chain.

But there’s a catch. Ribosomes don’t speak the same language as DNA does. If they were given the raw blueprints, it’d be like you opening up a box from IKEA and finding an instruction booklet written entirely in Swedish, without any pictures to stop you from attaching table legs upside down. Of course, if you were in that situation, you’d go to Google Translate to help get the information across—and ribosomes actually do the same thing. Well, almost.

The cell has to somehow interpret the genetic message from the sequences of nucleotides from the mRNA, and translate them into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Our interpreter—the cell’s equivalent of Google Translate—is another handy RNA molecule called Transfer RNA (tRNA), which floats around in the cytoplasm. In basic terms, its function is to read the message on the mRNA molecule, then goes and fetches the right amino acids and gives them to the ribosome to attach into a polypeptide chain. It does this with the help of an enzyme called amino acetyl tRNA synthase, which helps match up the amino acid to the tRNA. There are twenty different types of synthase, one for each amino acid.

Basically, it turns the language of nucleic acids into the language of proteins.

But how does the tRNA know how to read the mRNA molecule?

Well, the sequence of bases on an mRNA molecule are arranged in a specific way—in a series of non-overlapping codons. A codon is a group of three nitrogenous bases that code for a specific amino acid. The code CUU (cytosine-uracil-uracil), for example, codes for the amino acid leucine.

image

There are different kinds of tRNA that bind to a specific amino acid. Each one has a specific three-nucleotide sequence called an anti-codon that matches up with the complementary mRNA codon.

Some codons don’t code for an amino acid but rather act as a stop or go signal. See, if you’ve got a bunch of bases that have to be read in particular groups, you want to make sure that your tRNA starts at the right spot. Otherwise, the reading frame gets shifted one or two bases over, and suddenly your tRNA is fetching the wrong amino acids and your protein is a complete disaster. There are three different “stop” codons (UAA, UAG, and UGA) and one “start” codon (AUG). These tell the tRNA where to start reading and where to stop reading.

However, as you may have noticed from the table above, there isn’t just one codon for each amino acid. There are 61 different ways you can arrange four nucleotides into groups of three, so there are 61 codons. This means that some codons code for more than one amino acid. As you may also have noticed, the codons that code for the same amino acid all have the same first two nucleotides—it’s only the third nucleotide that changes.

This is a really important point. It means that the third nucleotide in a codon isn’t really that important. Most of the time, you could change that nucleotide and the same amino acid will still be produced. If any of the other nucleotides were changed, this could fundamentally alter what the codon codes for—another, incorrect amino acid would then be added to the polypeptide chain, and it could have a huge effect on the function of the chain. This is a mutation. But if the mutation occurs in the third nucleotide, chances are, everything will be fine.

On that note, another important thing—there isn’t one tRNA molecule for each codon. There are only 45 different tRNAs, and some can bind to more than one codon. Again, this is because the third nucleotide is the most flexible, and less important.

Next: a look at the steps of protein synthesis.

Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons

Further resources: Translation

Reblogging because it’s a good explanation.

My OCD senses are in a dilemma.
Halp!

My OCD senses are in a dilemma.

Halp!

fallenforbands:

imperfect-ions:

kaijuuwrx:

That water is so fucking clear…

type of place I wanna live

I’d be the idiot who forgets the water is there and falls off there porch everyday

fallenforbands:

imperfect-ions:

kaijuuwrx:

That water is so fucking clear…

type of place I wanna live

I’d be the idiot who forgets the water is there and falls off there porch everyday

(via mybygonevexations)

Sup guiz.

how  are you all doin?

szarabasjka:

sameatschildren:

co8alt-thief:

hannibalspenis:

arkhamboundz:

fandomsandconservativelogic:

therealkillthetraitor:

lejacquelope:

.

Why would ANYONE think this kind of mentality is okay? It’s like a serious phobia of men!

This is not okay. This is not equality.

Didn’t we learn in elementary school that putting other people down to make yourself feel good is bullying?

This isn’t feminism. This is evil.

this is disturbing.

And these women call themselves “feminists”…

And this is why people think feminism is awful. This is not feminism, this is awful people doing awful things.

most of this come from women victimized by men at some point I don’t blame them, but I do not share or support their ideas.

think about what kind of things had to happen to this ladies to think like that, an how fucked up is the world that judges the victims

Sure, it’s not like they are terrible people in general at all. It’s ok for them to behave like this because they are victims, eh?

(via szarabasjkali)

(Source: youtube.com, via tampontears)

  • Richie: You look like Bruce Lee
  • Scott: Why, because I'm Asian?
  • Richie: No because you look like Bruce Lee. I just paid you a compliment.
EVERY. DAMN. MORNING.

&lt;3

EVERY. DAMN. MORNING.

<3

manic-satanic:

dommer:

Dear cis people,
Check your motherfucking privilege. 

This is disgusting AND rape. EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO REFUSE SEX. Man, woman, male, female, gay, straight, trans, cis. Are you fucking kidding me???
Sexual orientation usually is based on SEX, not GENDER. I don’t care if a transwoman is a woman, as a lesbian I DO NOT WANT A DICK IN ME. And I have EVERY RIGHT to refuse sex with someone even if it’s just because they have a dick.
Forcing a man to be attracted to you and have sex with you because you identify as a woman is rape and wrong.

^dis girl. 
listen to her.

manic-satanic:

dommer:

Dear cis people,

Check your motherfucking privilege.

This is disgusting AND rape. EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO REFUSE SEX. Man, woman, male, female, gay, straight, trans, cis. Are you fucking kidding me???

Sexual orientation usually is based on SEX, not GENDER. I don’t care if a transwoman is a woman, as a lesbian I DO NOT WANT A DICK IN ME. And I have EVERY RIGHT to refuse sex with someone even if it’s just because they have a dick.

Forcing a man to be attracted to you and have sex with you because you identify as a woman is rape and wrong.

^dis girl. 

listen to her.

(via )

There once was a maiden from Stonebury Hollow…

she didn’t talk much, but boy did she swallow…

I have a nice lance that she sat upon…

the maiden from Stonebury who is also your mum…

Sup guiz.

About:

What the fuck did you just fucking say to me, you little bitch? I’ll have you know I graduated top of my class in the League of Shadows, and I’ve been involved in numerous secret raids on The mob, and I have beaten over 300 confirmed criminals. I am trained in ninjitsu and I’m the top detective in Gotham You are nothing to me but just another target. I will wipe you the fuck out with precision the likes of which has never been seen before in this city, mark my fucking words. You think you can get away with wearing hockey pads? Think again, fucker. As we speak I am using my secret network of sonar phones across the city and your IP is being traced right now so you better prepare for the storm, scum. The storm that wipes out the pathetic little thing you call your life. You’re fucking done, kid. I can be anywhere, anytime, and I can beat the shit out of you in over seven hundred ways, and that’s just with my tangerine. Not only am I extensively trained in unarmed combat, but I have access to the entire arsenal of the Lucious Fox and I will use it to its full extent to wipe your miserable ass off the face of the continent, you little shit. If only you could have known what unholy retribution your little “clever” comment was about to bring down upon you, maybe you would have held your fucking tongue. But you couldn’t, you didn’t, and now you’re paying the price, you goddamn idiot. I will shit justice all over you and you will drown in it. You’re fucking dead, kiddo. Im the goddamn Batman.

Oh, and I also run   this  when I'm procastinating btw